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Population depends upon groundwater for its drinking water supply.


Population depends upon groundwater for its drinking water supply. Many in this issue get their water from a private well. If you’re a water well system owner or are thinking about getting a system for your family’s drinking water needs it’s important you have a basic understanding of the different materials that comprise the system. Below are details about casing, well caps, well screens, and pitless adapters: fundamental materials that combine with a pump to supply water for a household.

The casing

The casing is the tubular structure that’s placed in the drilled well to keep the well opening. Along with grout, the casing also limits the groundwater to its subterranean area and prevents contaminants from mixing with the water. A few states or local governing agencies have regulations that require minimum lengths for the casing. The most typical materials for good casing are carbon steel, plastic, and stainless steel. Different geologic formations dictate what kind of casing may be used. For instance, portions of the country where hard rock lies underground are known strictly as steel states.

Steel and Polyvinyl chloride,

Residents in certain areas have a choice between steel and Polyvinyl chloride, both of that have advantages. Polyvinyl chloride is light-weight, resistant against corrosion, and comparatively easy for contractors to install. Nevertheless, it isn’t as strong and not as resistant to heat as steel. Steel, though, is susceptible to corrosion, may have scale build-up, and may cost more than PVC. Some contractors also use concrete, fiberglass, and asbestos cement casing.

Well cap

On top of the casing should be an approved well cap. It should fit perfectly so debris, insects, or small animals cannot find their way into the good system. Well, caps are usually aluminum or a thermoplastic and include a ventilated screen so the pressure difference between the outside and inside the good casing can be equalized when water is pumped from the well. The casing and cap should extend at least 6 to 8 inches above the ground. In case the well is near a river or stream, it should extend at least past the flood level to prevent overflow from contaminating the groundwater.


Well, screens are filtering devices used to prevent excess sediment from entering the well. They attach to the bottom of the casing, allowing water to move throughout the well while keeping out most gravel and sand. The most famous screens are slit continues, slotted pipe, and perforated pipe. Perforated pipe is a length of the casing which has holes or slots drilled into the pipe. It’s not efficient for aquifers that feature a lot of sand and gravel because it’s wide openings. There’s a less open area in the other two kinds of screens.